Male and female gametophytes of plant kingdom!?

Male and female gametophytes of plant kingdom!?

Postby simen » October 23rd, 2013, 8:33 am

Can someone please please tell me what different male and female gametophytes in different plant kingdom phylum are called?
Like in bryophyta female gametophyte is the archegonia.. I want to know the names for all the phylums.. Please help!!
Thankyou so much already!
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Male and female gametophytes of plant kingdom!?

Postby selyv » October 23rd, 2013, 8:33 am

Can someone please please tell me what different male and female gametophytes in different plant kingdom phylum are called?
Like in bryophyta female gametophyte is the archegonia.. I want to know the names for all the phylums.. Please help!!
Thankyou so much already!
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selyv
 
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Male and female gametophytes of plant kingdom!?

Postby algy64 » October 23rd, 2013, 8:39 am

Female gametangia are called archegonia; male gametangia, antheridia. They may be part of larger reproductive organs.

Bryophytes have male antherida & female archegonia in separate clusters on the same branch in the gametophyte dominant stage.

Fern gametophyte stage - prothallus is dioecious with both antheridium and archegonium. Fern gametophytes produce motile sperm in their antheridia on the underside of the gametophyte fronds. These sperm swim to the non-motile eggs produced in the archegonium and fertilize them if it is moist enough.


In gymnosperms, pollination is the transfer of pollen from a microsporangiate, or “male,” cone to the micropyle of a megasporangiate, or “female,” cone. The female seed cone has scales that each shelter an integument covered ovule (sporangium). The megasporangium or ovule produces spores that are not released. Inside this ovule the megaspore grows into a mature gametophyte by stimulation from the pollen tube. The scale opens to let pollen enter then closes again after fertilization to protect the maturing seed. Each ovule’s gametophyte forms archegonia at the end open to the pollen tube. Each archegonia contains an egg that receives the 2 sperm nuclei for fertilization. The cone scale covers the ovule until the seed is mature, then the scale opens once more leaving an exposed seed.

In male cones the microspore is a single cell that grows into a mature gametophyte or pollen grain with a reduced antheridium to generate sperm nuclei, in pollen producing species of gymnosperm. The antheridium has been reduced to a single generative cell within the pollen grain.
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/bot201/conifers/conifer_lecture.htm

Flowering species have pistils and stamens as the actual female and male reproductive organs. Angiosperm plants have a sporangium or ovule that is protected, being inside the ovary at the base of the pistil. Inside the ovule is the gametophyte archegonium that produces ova.
It is like a Russian doll with structures enclosing structures. Angiosperm ovaries do not have openings, the pollen must actually grow pollen tubes down the pistil to the gametophyte's ova and deliver the sperm nuclei.
Microsporangium produces the microsporocytes, microspore mother cells, which each creates four microspores through meiosis. The microspores divide to create pollen grains
Pollen = microspore wall (diploid) tetrad pollen microgametophyte (haploid reduced antheridium) two nuclei: a vegetative nuclei to form a pollen tube and a generative nuclei to produce the 2 sperm nuclei to be delivered by the tube for fertilization of an ovum.
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